Quantitative research approaches use the hypothesis as the frame for the methodology. Here, you will have an appropriate framework and variables considered. In both approaches, the main research question is the basis for the hypotheses and objectives of the research.
Researcher versus methodology
Hypotheses can be developed from the research questions. Designing a hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. The development of the research objective can be done after the development of the research questions or hypothesis. This should be applied all throughout your paper. See Citations and References — The APA Style Guide for a guide to acknowledging the works of other authors when incorporating their ideas into your writing. The Literature Review.
In this chapter and in the succeeding chapters of your thesis or dissertation , you need to write an introductory paragraph or paragraphs that show the following:. The second part is the Body. The following are some elements that can be included in the second part of the Literature Review chapter. Discuss with your adviser to finalize the sections and sub-headings.
The last part is the Chapter Summary.
Summarize the important aspects of the existing body of literature. Assess the current state of the literature reviewed. It should be well-developed in order to obtain all the information required to answer your research questions, test a theory or explain a situation relevant to the main aim of the research. Start this chapter with a short introduction to your research design. In this section, the research questions, hypotheses and objectives must be presented. An overview of the research approach, and the techniques and measurements that will be used to analyze data are also included in the introduction.
The next part of this chapter, or the Body, consists of some or all sections shown below. Each section should be described and explained in detail. Discuss with your adviser for additional sections and sub-headings for each section or a more appropriate structure. The last section is the Chapter Summary. The Final Chapters of your Thesis. At this stage, you have already collected as much data as you can and are ready to process and analyze such a huge amount of information. However, expect a lot of changes in your process, methods and chapters.
These changes can come from your research adviser, too. The first step you need to do is to revisit the first three chapters of your thesis. Here, you would need to make the necessary corrections to some of the sections presented during the proposal stage. For example, you might have to fine-tune your research questions and objectives based on the data you have gathered or what you have found during the research process. The Scope and Limitations of the Study section in Chapter 1 would now have to be included in Chapter 3.
Face Recognition for Real Time Application
Another section, Organization of the Study, must be added in Chapter 1. Check the figure below for the main parts of a thesis. Variations from the general format can be decided with your adviser. Figure 1: Main parts of a thesis or dissertation. If this chapter is generally brief, presenting the results, and explaining and interpreting them can be combined in one chapter.
Otherwise, the Results and Discussion section should be in separate or defined sections or chapters. Start with a brief introduction of this chapter. Results : answers to the research questions which are generated from the collected data. Your opinion should not be included when presenting the results. Descriptive or frequency statistical results of all variables must be reported first before specific statistical tests e.
Why is it important? Why is this an interesting topic? Why pursue the specific line of investigation you do? One way of thinking about a brief introduction, is to think about providing the level of motivation or justification that would satisfy a well-educated friend of yours curious about what you are doing and why, with the literature review providing the level of motivation and justification that would satisfy an expert in the field. Longer introductions might occur when a significant amount of background material needs to be reviewed in order for the reader to appreciate the context and significance of your research question.
11 Conclusions and future work | Thesis | Ken Arroyo Ohori
But if this is the case, then it is important to make it clear to the reader what the point of a long review is! Provides the rationale for proceeding in the way you did and perhaps for why you have organised things the way you have e. W , gives a good example of what a useful outline looks like. These three questions can be used to broadly analyse the structure of other people's writing so that you can get an overview of what they have done and how they have organised things.
Another way of analysing your writing and the writing of others is to consider which of the following three "moves" are being made in each paragraph or section of a paragraph see Paltridge and Starfield, , Ch. A common structure is to start with the broadest possible motivation and then gradually narrow the scope until the particular focus of the thesis or article is reached e. Example 4. However, some writers prefer to start with a statement of the aim of the research, then proceed to give the arguments for pursuing that aim.
Because of these reasons or observations, I'm going to do this , as opposed to: I am going to do this because of these reasons. In many instances, researchers don't know exactly where they will end up until they get there, so introductions and abstracts are often the last sections of a paper or thesis which are written. However, writing "working" abstracts and introductions as you go along can be useful to force you to think about the overview of, and motivation for, what you are doing.
And while they will have to be revised and fine-tuned, having a general sense of where you are going and why is very useful when making the journey.
Motivation and Scope of this Thesis
Background is necessary to orientate the reader to what you are doing, but it is possible to give too much detail so that the reader starts to wonder why they need to know all of what they are being told. To simply say that your research will look at ways to deal with power grid instabilities indicates to the reader that you're working on solving a problem, but not why that problem is significant enough to work on. To indicate the significance of the problem, it would be necessary to briefly explain:.
What are the economic consequences of power grid instabilities? Some indicative statistics would be enough to make your point, you wouldn't need masses of statistics. It might help here to think of your Introduction as being what you would tell an educated friend who wanted to know what your research is all about and why you are doing it, while the Literature Review is for other researchers in the field.
Impact and data related shortcomings
It needs to be noted, however, that in some disciplines or areas the Introduction includes the Literature Review, and so can be quite lengthy. See Example 6 and Dr Leslie Sage's comments on this at the end of her article. See the literature review section for more detailed information. One possible structure is an introductory section that provides a justification and explanation of the methodological approach es chosen, followed by relevant elements of the classical sub-sections:. However, there is a lot of disciplinary variation in the way these things are done, so use the ideas from here to analyse what you see in your discipline.
Common problems include see Paltridge and Starfield , Ch. If you present your results separately from your discussion, then the Results section for quantitative research is where you:.
For guidance on how to effectively incorporate quantitative data in the forms of tables and figures in your writing, see this Info Sheet PDF, 38 KB. Search form Search Student Services. Homepage Site menu Show Search. Sections of a thesis. Students can get any thesis help and guidance in the field of electronics and communication from the experts in this field. Share your Details to get free Expert Guidance in 24 Hours. Select Your Course M. Tech M. Phil PhD Others. Search for:.
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